A report from the Guadec GTK+ BoF

The GTK+ team had a full day planning session during the BoF days at Guadec, and we had a full room, including representatives from several downstreams, not just GNOME.

We had a pretty packed agenda, too.

GTK+ 3

We started out by reviewing the GTK+ 3 plans that we’ve outlined earlier.

In addition to what was mentioned there, we also plan to backport the new event controllers, to make porting to GTK+ 4 easier. We will also add meson build support to help with Windows builds.

The 3.24 releases will effectively be a continuation of the 3.22 branch and should be entirely safe to put out as stable updates in distributions.

We plan to release GTK+ 3.24.0 in time for GNOME 3.30.

GTK+ 4 leftovers

The bulk of the day was taken up by GTK+ 4 discussion. We’ve reviewed the list of leftover tasks on the roadmap:

  • Finish DND: Gestures on the GTK+ level, local shortcuts
  • Introduce GtkToplevel and cleanly support popovers
  • Add transformations
  • Create a shortcuts event controller to replace key bindings
  • Port GtkTextView to render nodes
  • Profile the cairo backend, make sure its performance is on par with GTK+ 3
  • Port various dependent libraries:
    • vte
    • webkit
    • libchamplain
    • gtk-vnc
    • gtk-spice

Most of these tasks have names next to them, but if you want to help with any of these tasks, by all means, contact us!

Noticeably absent from this list are a few things that were on the roadmap before:

  • Constraint-based layout (emeus)
  • Shader compiler and application provided shaders
  • Designer support

All of these can still happen if merge requests appear, but we don’t think that we should block on them. They can be developed externally to GTK+ 4, and become GTK+ 5 material.

GTK+ backends

We spent some time evaluating the state of GDK backends in GTK+ master.

The Windows backend is in OK shape. We have several people who help with maintenance and feature development for it, meson makes building it a lot easier, and we have ci for it.

The Quartz backend is in a much worse state. It has not been kept in buildable shape, nobody is providing fixes or feature development for it, and we don’t have ci. We had a macbook offered that could be used for ci, and it was suggested that we could use travis ci for the OS X.

GTK+ timeline

We spent a long time on this, and did not reach a 100% consensus, but it seems realistic to aim for a GTK+ 4 release in spring of 2019, if we keep making good progress on the outstanding leftovers.

When we release GTK+ 3.96, we will also announce a date for GTK+ 4.0. We hope to be able commit to release before GNOME 3.32, so GNOME application developers can switch their master branches to GTK+ 4 without worrying about whether that will disrupt other development for 3.32.

Application porting

We really want feedback from application ports at this point. But we are in a bit of a difficult position, since we can’t plausibly claim to be done with major API work until the GtkToplevel and shortcuts controller work is done.

Our recommendation to app authors at this point is:

  • If you are a bit adventurous, do a port to 3.94 on a branch. It should be possible to keep it working without too much work during the remainder of GTK+ 4 development.
  • If you are not quite as adventurous, wait until 3.24 is released, use it to prepare your port, and port to GTK+ 3.96.
  • Either way, please make your port available to users for testing, either as a regular release, or as a Flatpak with a bundled GTK+.

GLib diversion

In the afternoon, we spent a while talking about GLib. We went over a laundry list of larger and smaller items. Notable highlights: GProperty may happen for 2.60 and we may be able to use g_autoptr soon.

Other ideas

We discussed a great number of other things that we could and should do.

For example, it was suggested (and generally agreed to) that we should merge gsk into gdk, since it is small and the internals are somewhat intertwined. It was also suggested to create subdirectories in gtk/, for example for the css machinery.

GTK+ 3.94

Today, we released GTK+ 3.94.0. Again, it has been a while since the last release, so it is worth summarizing whats new in this release. There is really too much here to cover it all, so this post will only highlight the most important changes.

This release is another milestone on our way towards GTK+ 4. And while there are still some unfinished things, this release is much closer to we hope to achieve with GTK+ 4.

GSK

The Broadway backend now has a GskRenderer, so the future for Broadway looks much better.

We introduced a new type of render node, GskOffsetNode, which is a simplified GskTransformNode and takes over the job of translating content as we move up and down the render node tree. With this change, we are now able to cache render nodes for widgets over multiple frames, and reposition them if necessary.

We also introduced GskDebugNodes, which take over node names, and let us simplify some of the GTK+ apis for creating render nodes.

When falling back to cairo for rendering, we now use recording surfaces instead of image surfaces, so we can replay the rendering at a different scale.

An important new operation is gsk_render_node_diff to compare two render node trees (see below for more on this).

GDK

Following the general trend of aligning the GDK apis with Wayland instead of X, GdkWindow was renamed to GdkSurface.

The GdkTexture api has been refined, with new GdkMemoryTexture and GdkGLTexture subclasses, and a powerful new abstraction, GdkPaintable, has been introduced.

A GdkPaintable represents an object that can be painted anywhere at any size without requiring any sort of layout. This is inspired by similar concepts elsewhere, such as ClutterContent, HTML/CSS Paint Sources or SVG Paint Servers. To show off the power of this concept, a few new demos have been added in gtk4-demo:

The DND code continues to see major refactorings. It now uses the same content-provider infrastructure that was introduced in 3.93 for clipboard handling, and it has separate objects for the source and target side of a DND operation. More changes will be coming here.

GTK

widgets

GTK+ has gained support for showing videos, with the GtkVideo and GtkMediaControls widgets, and there is also a new GtkPicture widget to split off image viewing from GtkImage (which is really about icons).

GtkFontChooser allows tweaking OpenType features and font variations, and Ctrl-Shift-e for color Emoji input has been replaced with completion that can be enabled with the GtkEntry::enable-emoji-completion property.

Input

The event-specific signals in GtkWidget continue to disappear. At this point only ::event is left, but it will go away too. Instead, we are using event controllers, and several new ones have been added to cover all needed events:

  • GtkEventControllerMotion
  • GtkEventControllerKey
  • GtkGestureStylus

To make this transition easier, it is now possible to create event controllers in ui files.

Wayland has its own platform input method, based on the Wayland text protocol.

Drawing

The ::draw signal has been removed, all widgets have to implement ::snapshot. They can now create their own GtkSnapshot instances for intermediate rendering. Clipping is no longer applied on the GTK+ level – widgets are free to draw outside their allocation, if that is what is required.

Widget invalidation has been changed, it now works by discarding the cached render nodes of invalidated widgets, and recreating the missing parts of the render node tree.

For finding the region that needs to be redrawn, GTK+ diffs the render node trees of the previous and the current frame, and applies some heuristics to keep the number of rectangles from growing too large.

The GTK+ inspector lets you track invalidations, which you can see in action here:

Other changeS

GTK+ no longer supports generic loadable modules. Input methods, print backends and media backends have been converted to GIOModules and extension points.

The platform im modules (i.e. the Windows, Wayland, Broadway im contexts)  are always included and will be enabled by default on their platform.

The Vulkan support in GDK can now use a particular device that is specified by the GDK_VULKAN_DEVICE environment variable. Use GDK_VULKAN_DEVICE=list to see all availble devices.

Try it out

With GTK+ 3.94.0, it should be possible to start porting applications. The documentation has an initial porting guide.

A GTK+ 3 update

Plans

When we started development towards GTK+ 4, we laid out a plan that said GTK+ 3.22 would be the final, stable branch of GTK+ 3.  And we’ve stuck to this for a while.

I has served us reasonably well — GTK+ 3 stopped changing in drastic ways, which was well-received, and we are finally seeing applications moving from GTK+ 2.

Reality

But, GTK+ 4 is taking its time to mature (more on that in another post), and some nice new features (such as font variation support, or Emoji completion) languish unused in master. We also get requests for critical APIs from some of the ported applications.

Therefore, we have decided that it is better to change course and allow a limited amount of new features and API in GTK+ 3.x, by doing a GTK+ 3.24 release in September.

There is now a gtk-3-24 branch in git. GTK+ 3.x maintenance has moved to that branch, and we won’t be doing any further 3.22.x releases.

Highlights

The first release off this new branch is GTK+ 3.23.0, which can be found here:

https://download.gnome.org/sources/gtk+/3.23/gtk+-3.23.0.tar.xz

The highlights of this release include new font chooser features,

  • Allow setting OpenType font features
  • Show examples for OpenType font features
  • Allow selecting OpenType font variations
  • Support levels of details for selection

new Emoji features,

  • Support a completion popup for Emoji
  • Drop Ctrl-Shift-e shortcut

gdk_window_move_to_rect as public API,

and the Wayland backend using anonymous shared memory on FreeBSD.

Numerology

A side-effect of doing one more 3.x cycle is that we will have GTK+ 3.24 to be the final GTK+ 3, which is a pleasant parallel to GTK+ 2.24 being the final GTK+ 2.

Input methods in GTK+ 4

GTK’s support for loadable modules dates back to the beginning of time, which is why GTK has a lot of code to deal with GTypeModules and with search paths, etc. Much later on, Alex revisited this topic for GVfs, and came up with the concept of extension points and GIO modules, which implement them.  This is a much nicer framework, and GTK 4 is the perfect opportunity for us to switch to using it.

Changes in GTK+ 4

Therefore, I’ve recently spent some time on the module support in GTK. The major changes here are the following:

  • We no longer support general-purpose loadable modules. One of the few remaining users of this facility is libcanberra, and we will look at implementing ‘event sound’ functionality directly in GTK+ instead of relying on a module for it. If you rely on loading GTK+ modules, please come and talk to us about other ways to achieve what you are doing.
  • Print backends are now defined using an extension point named “gtk-print-backend”, which requires the type GtkPrintBackend.  The existing print backends have been converted to GIO modules implementing this extension point. Since we have never supported out-of-tree print backends, this should not affect anybody else.
  • Input methods are also defined using an extension point, named “gtk-im-module”, which requires the GtkIMContext type.  We have dropped all the non-platform IM modules, and moved the platform IM modules into GTK+ proper, while also implementing the extension point.

Adapting existing input methods

Since we still support out-of-tree IM modules, I want to use the rest of this post to give a quick sketch of how an out-of-tree IM module for GTK+ 4 has to look.

There are a few steps to convert a traditional GTypeModule-based IM module to the new extension point. The example code below is taken from the Broadway input method.

Use G_DEFINE_DYNAMIC_TYPE

We are going to load a type from a module, and G_DEFINE_DYNAMIC_TYPE is the proper way to define such types:

G_DEFINE_DYNAMIC_TYPE (GtkIMContextBroadway,
                       gtk_im_context_broadway,
                       GTK_TYPE_IM_CONTEXT)

Note that this macro defines a gtk_im_context_broadway_register_type() function, which we will use in the next step.

Note that dynamic types are expected to have a class_finalize function in addition to the more common class_init, which can be trivial:

static void
gtk_im_context_broadway_class_finalize
               (GtkIMContextBroadwayClass *class)
{
}

Implement the GIO module API

In order to be usable as a GIOModule, a module must implement three functions: g_io_module_load(), g_io_module_unload() and g_io_module_query() (strictly speaking, the last one is optional, but we’ll implement it here anyway).

void
g_io_module_load (GIOModule *module)
{
  g_type_module_use (G_TYPE_MODULE (module));
  gtk_im_context_broadway_register_type  
                        (G_TYPE_MODULE (module));
  g_io_extension_point_implement
             (GTK_IM_MODULE_EXTENSION_POINT_NAME,
              GTK_TYPE_IM_CONTEXT_BROADWAY,
              "broadway",
              10);
 }
void
g_io_module_unload (GIOModule *module)
{
}
char **
g_io_module_query (void)
{
  char *eps[] = {
    GTK_IM_MODULE_EXTENSION_POINT_NAME,
    NULL
  };
  return g_strdupv (eps);
}

Install your module properly

GTK+ will still look in $LIBDIR/gtk-4.0/immodules/ for input methods to load, but GIO only looks at shared objects whose name starts with “lib”, so make sure you follow that convention.

Debugging

And thats it!

Now GTK+ 4 should load your input method, and if you run a GTK+ 4 application with GTK_DEBUG=modules, you should see your module show up in the debug output.

 

GTK+ 3.92

Yesterday, we released GTK+ 3.92.1, 重庆市. Since it has been a while since the last 3.91 release, here is a brief look at the major changes.

This release is another milestone on our way towards GTK+ 4. And while a lot still needs to be done, this release allows a first glimpse at some of the things we hope to achieve in GTK+ 4.

GSK

Much of the work since the last release has gone into GSK. The Vulkan renderer is now close to complete, as far as avoiding cairo fallbacks goes. The only missing piece are blurred shadows (admittedly, an important piece).

One major step forward since the 3.91.2 release is that we no longer use cairo fallbacks for all text. Instead, text (in labels and entries, sadly not in text views yet) gets translated into text nodes. Each text node contains a PangoGlyphString and a PangoFont. The Vulkan renderer uses a glyph cache to avoid re-rendering the glyphs for each frame.

The internal logic of the Vulkan renderer has been reworked to use textures instead of cairo surfaces for intermediate results and thus avoid more cairo fallbacks.

Other node types that have gained support in the Vulkan renderer include blurs, repeat nodes, blend modes and cross-fades. In some cases, the shaders we use are very naive implementations. Help with improving them would be more than welcome!

As a first example of what we can do with render nodes, we have implemented a blur-under feature for GtkOverlay. This works by capturing the ‘main child’ of the overlay as a render node, and then reusing it several times, with the right clipping, and sometimes with a blur node.

Inspector

To help you explore GSK, the inspector now shows Vulkan information and the recorder shows a lot more information about render nodes.

Input

On the input side, events have gained accessors, and we are no longer accessing their fields directly. This is an intermediate step, cleaning up events is still a work in progress. We have moved the traditional widget signals for events (such as ::key-press-event) to an event controller, and most widgets inside GTK+ have stopped using them altogether.

Build System

We have switched over to using Meson exclusively for GTK+, and the 3.92.1 release is the first one done using Meson’s dist support. To get the release out the door, we also had to port the documentation, the test suite and the installed tests to using Meson.

There are still some rough edges (we don’t get all dependencies 100% right), but overall, Meson worked out well for us.

The rest

Of course, everybody loves Emoji, and the same color Emoji support that has landed in GTK+ 3.22 is also available in this release. Beyond that, font support in CSS has improved a bit with support for the CSS3 font-variant property.

Of course, this relies on fonts that have the corresponding features.

Try it out

With GTK+ 3.92.1, it should be easy to try some of these things out for yourself.

And if you’ve always wanted to get into GTK+ development but never found the right opportunity, now is a great time to get involved!

A scrolling primer

A few years ago, I wrote a post about scrolling in GTK+ 3. Time for another look!

The common case

The basic idea of the changes described back then is still the same. We expect touchpad (or track point) scrolling to be one of the most common forms of scrolling, and the scrollbar operates as a narrow indicator for this.

As you can see, we change the cursor to indicate scrolling, and it you can freely scroll in all directions. It is kinetic, too.

Classical scrolling

Of course, it is still possible to just click and drag the slider, for classical scrolling.

Another aspect of ‘classical’ scrolling is that you can click on the trough outside the slider, and either warp the position to where you clicked, or jump in page-size increments.

By default, a primary click warps, and Shift-primary click goes by pages. We just added back middle click as an alternative to Shift-primary click, since this is a common alternative that many people are used to. For mainly historical reasons, GTK+ has a setting, gtk-primary-button-warps-slider, which switches the roles of primary click and Shift-primary click for this.

The typical keyboard shortcuts (Page Up, Page Down, Home, End) let you control scrolling with the keyboard.

Smooth scrolling

There’s more to scrolling in GTK+ that you may not know about. One feature that we introduced long ago is a ‘zoom’ or ‘fine adjustment’ mode, which slows the scrolling down to allow pixel-precise positioning.

To trigger this mode you can either use a long press or shift-click in the slider. As you can see in the video, once you move the pointer below or above the scrollbar, it will keep scrolling at the same relaxed speed until you let go.

As a variation on this theme, more recently we added a variable speed variant of smooth scrolling.

To trigger it, you secondary click in the trough outside the slider. Once the scrolling starts, you can control the speed by moving the pointer closer or farther away from the scrollbar. This is pretty addictive, once you’ve discovered it!

Custom locations

As the last feature, applications can add a context menu that gets triggered by secondary click on the slider, and make it scroll to important positions.

Thats it, scroll on!

Progress towards GTK+ 4

Last week at GUADEC in Manchester, the GTK+ maintainers and interested folks met for a working session during the unconference days.

Georges already did a nice job summarizing the results in his blog post, which you should read (if only to see some pictures of the assembled GTK+ folks).

GTK+ 3

We did briefly discuss GTK+ 3. Our impression is that most people are enjoying the stability that came with GTK+ 3.22 and are not in a rush to jump on a new, less stable toolkit version.

The general consensus was that we should maintain a pretty strict stance on API additions in GTK+ 3, but allow new features in when their is a high enough benefit. Examples for this that came up are the client-side versus server-side negotiation protocol support for Wayland, or color emoji support.

GTK+ 4

The bulk of the time was devoted to discussing all the things that we want or need to complete for GTK+ 4. We have a pretty good idea who is going to work on each of these items, but we did not nail down a very detailed timeline for completing them.

At the end, we collected a list of the items that we consider blockers:

  • Constraint-based layout
  • Support for defining states and transitions in ui files
  • Designer support
  • Convert keyboard handling to event controllers
  • Non-fallback text rendering
  • A finished GL renderer
  • Clean support for subsurfaces in GDK
  • No more root window in GDK
  • Event cleanup

Some of these bullet points deserve a more detailed discussion.

Constraint-based layout, states and designer support

Layout with constraints is a flexible system, and it has been successful on other platforms. More importantly, it is much closer to the way most humans thing about laying out things on a screen or piece of paper, and it will hopefully provide a common language that designers and developers of GTK+ applications can communicate in.

The Emeus widget that Emmanuele and others have been working on for a while is using constraints to find positions and sizes for child widgets of an individual container.

The plan for integrating it into GTK+ is a bit more ambitious: We envision a single constraints solver per toplevel that all the containers inside the window add their constraints to. This will require the current containers in GTK+ to express their layout algorithms in terms of constraints, which should not be too hard in most cases, and can be done piecemeal.

States and transitions between them is something that Christian Hergert has prototyped in libdazzle. The idea here is to define not just a complex widget such as a dialog, but also its main states and how transitions between them should work, in a ui file. This will lets us have a UI designer tool that is not just about arranging widgets on a canvas, but goes towards story-boarding and designing transitions. This is of course much easier said than done…

Keyboard handling

Christian took some time to describe the shortcuts engine that he has written for gnome builder, which currently lives in libdazzle. It has some interesting features, like capture-bubble event handling, chording (i.e. multi-key sequences such as Ctrl-C Ctrl-X), tight integration with actions, and the ability to automatically generate help for keyboard shortcuts.

The plan in this area is to take the best features from Christians engine and turn them into one or more GtkEventControllers. Once this work is complete, we will convert all widgets to use event controllers instead of key-press signal handlers.

GtkBindingSet will also be replaced by event controllers.

Text rendering

The Vulkan renderer for GSK is more or less complete. It can render most of what the CSS machinery produces efficiently, using shaders. The big exception is text: what happens for text currently is we render it to a surface using cairo, then upload the surface to a texture, and then use that in render node. For every frame.

What needs to happen here is that we upload the glyphs we need into a larger texture that we keep around as atlas, and then create text render nodes that refer to the atlas.

Since text is a pretty important ingredient in user interfaces, we can’t really claim that we’ve validated the render node approach until we have proper text rendering implemented for Vulkan.

The GL renderer

Benjamin has done most of the work to get the Vulkan renderer to an almost complete state. While he was doing that, the GL renderer has fallen behind – it does not have the shaders that are used in Vulkan.

What needs to happen here is to abstract out the common parts, and backport the rest from Vulkan to its GL equivalent. A not so fun aspect of this is that we may eventually need more than one variant of GL renderer, for legacy GL and GLES platforms. But we can probably get away with just a modern GL renderer, at least initially.

Fonts and Text

A separate session was devoted to new features in our text rendering stack. The features that were the topic here are variable fonts and color emoji. Unfortunately, I missed most of the discussion, but a summary of the outcome is that:

  • Behdad has a rough plan for what needs to be done in pango and fontconfig for supporting variable fonts. This involves new syntax in PangoFontDescription for specifying axis values and new API in PangoFontFamily to obtain information about available axes.
  • During GUADEC, Behdad merged support for color emoji in cairo, fontconfig and pango and I started to work on some simple emoji input in GTK+. That has landed now too, in both GTK+ 3 and master.

Other

We touched on too many other topics to summarize them all here. One of them was the state of accessibility, but that is a topic for another time.

Container secrets: size allocation, part 6

Baselines

We are entering another of the more mysterious areas of GTK+ size allocation. Baselines move widgets from a simple box-with-width-and-height model to one where widgets can be aligned vertically in more interesting ways. The main place where this is matters is text. The readers eye is very sensitive to words moving up and down as you move along a line of text. Baselines are there to avoid that.

 

Since this is about aligning children vertically wrt. to each other, baselines are only relevant when the container is in horizontal orientation.

Measure above and below

Since children can now have a ‘forced’ alignment, simply t aking the maximum of the children’s heights is no longer sufficient. The alignment might cause children to ‘stick out’ at the top or the bottom, requiring a greater overall height. In order to handle this, we measure the parts ‘above the baseline’ and the parts ‘below the baseline’ separately, and maximize them separately.

for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
  gtk_widget_measure (child[i],
                      orientation,
                      sizes[i].minimum_size,
                      &child_min, &child_nat,
                      &child_min_baseline, &child_nat_baseline);

   below_min = MAX (below_min, child_min - child_min_baseline);
   above_min = MAX (above_min, child_min_baseline);
   below_nat = MAX (below_nat, child_nat - child_nat_baseline);
   above_nat = MAX (above_nat, child_nat_baseline);
}

total_min = above_min + below_min;
total_nat = above_nat + below_nat;

This code leaves out some details, such as dealing with children that don’t return a baseline.

Allocate on baseline

On the allocation side, there are two cases: either we are given a baseline that we have to align our children to, or we have to determine a baseline ourselves. In the latter case, we need to do essentially the same we already did for measuring: determine the below and above sizes separately, and use them to find our baseline:

for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
  if (gtk_widget_get_valign (child[i]) != GTK_ALIGN_BASELINE)
    continue;

  gtk_widget_measure (child[i],
                      GTK_ORIENTATION_VERTICAL,
                      child_size[i],
                      &child_min, &child_nat,
                      &child_min_baseline, &child_nat_baseline);

  below_min = MAX (below_min, child_min - child_min_baseline);
  below_nat = MAX (below_nat, child_nat - child_nat_baseline);
  above_min = MAX (above_min, child_min_baseline);
  above_nat = MAX (above_nat, child_nat_baseline);
}

When it comes to determining the baseline, we again have a choice to make. When there is more space available than the minimum, do we place the baseline as high as possible, or as low as possible, or somewhere in the middle? GtkBox has a ::baseline-position property to leave this choice to the user, and we do the same here.

switch (baseline_position) {
  case GTK_BASELINE_POSITION_TOP:
    baseline = above_min;
    break;
  case GTK_BASELINE_POSITION_CENTER:
    baseline = above_min + (height - (above_min + below_min)) / 2;
    break;
  case GTK_BASELINE_POSITION_BOTTOM:
    baseline = height - below_min;
    break;
}
Expanded, baseline position: center
Compressed, baseline position: top
Compressed, baseline position: center
Compressed, baseline position: bottom

Summary

This ends our journey through GTK+’s size allocation machinery. I hope you enjoyed it.

References

  1. Container secrets: size allocation
  2. Container secrets: size allocation, part 2
  3. Container secrets: size allocation, part 3
  4. Container secrets: size allocation, part 4
  5. Container secrets: size allocation, part 5
  6. The code with these changes

Container secrets: size allocation, part 5

Orientation

Many widgets in GTK+ can be oriented either horizontally or vertically. Anything from a separator to a toolbar is implementing the GtkOrientable interface to allow this to be changed at runtime, by setting the ::orientation property. So, obviously, GtkCenterBox should follow this pattern too.

I’m not explaining in detail how to add the interface and implement the property. The interesting part for us is how we are going to use the orientation property during size allocation.

Thankfully, much of our machinery is already written in terms of a single dimension, and can be applied to a height just as well as a width. What remains to be done is going through all the functions, and making sure that we take the orientation into account whenever we do something that depends on it. For example, we introduce a little helper to query the proper expand property.

static gboolean
get_expand (GtkWidget *widget,
            GtkOrientation orientation)
{
  if (orientation == GTK_ORIENTATION_HORIZONTAL)
    return gtk_widget_get_hexpand (widget);
  else
    return gtk_widget_get_vexpand (widget);
}

One thing to keep in mind is that some of the features we implement here only apply in horizontal orientation, such as right-to-left flipping, or baselines.

The measure() function changes to avoid hardcoding horizontal orientation:

if (orientation == self->orientation)
  gtk_center_box_measure_orientation (widget, orientation, for_size,
                                      minimum, natural,
                                      min_baseline, nat_baseline);
else
  gtk_center_box_measure_opposite (widget, orientation, for_size,
                                   minimum, natural,
                                   min_baseline, nat_baseline);

The size_allocate() function calls distribute() to distribute either the width or the height, depending on orientation:

if (self->orientation == GTK_ORIENTATION_HORIZONTAL) {
  size = width;
  for_size = height;
} else {
  size = height;
  for_size = width;
}
distribute (self, for_size, size, sizes);

After these straightforward, but tedious changes, we can orient a center box vertically:

References

  1. Container secrets: size allocation
  2. Container secrets: size allocation, part 2
  3. Container secrets: size allocation, part 3
  4. Container secrets: size allocation, part 4
  5. The code with these changes

Container secrets: size allocation, part 4

Height-for-width

This is where we enter the deeper parts of GTK+ size allocation. Height-for-width means that a widget does not have a single minimum size, but it might be able to accommodate a smaller width in return for getting a bigger height. Most widgets are not like this. The typical example for this behavior is a label that can wrap its text in multiple lines:

  

Height-for-width makes size allocation more expensive, so containers have to enable it explicitly, by setting a request mode. In general, containers should look at their children and use the request mode that is preferred by the majority of them. For simplicity, we just hardcode height-for-width here:

static GtkSizeRequestMode
gtk_center_box_get_request_mode (GtkWidget *widget)
{
  return GTK_SIZE_REQUEST_HEIGHT_FOR_WIDTH;
}

Measure both ways

The idiomatic way to write a measure() function that can handle height-for-width is to break it down into two cases: one where we are measuring along the orientation of the layout, and one where we are measuring in the opposite direction.

if (orientation == GTK_ORIENTATION_HORIZONTAL)
  measure_orientation (widget, for_size,
                       orientation,
                       minimum, natural,
                       minimum_baseline, natural_baseline);
else
  measure_opposite (widget, for_size,
                    orientation,
                    minimum, natural,
                    minimum_baseline, natural_baseline);

Measuring in the direction of the orientation is just like what our measure() function has done all along: we get a height, so we ask all children how much width they need for that height, and we sum up the answers.

Measuring in the opposite direction means to answer the question: given this width, how much height do you need ? We want to ask the children the same question, but what width should we give to each child ? We can’t just pass the full width to each child, since we don’t want them to overlap.

Distribute

To solve this, we need to distribute the available width among the children. This is just what our size_allocate() function is doing, so we need to break out the guts of size_allocate() out into a separate function.

Unsurprisingly, we will call the new function distribute().

static void
distribute (GtkCenterBox *self,
            int for_size,
            int size,
            GtkRequestedSize *sizes)
{
   /* Do whatever size_allocate() used to do
    * to determine sizes
    */

  sizes[0].minimum_size = start_size;
  sizes[1].minimum_size = center_size;
  sizes[2].minimum_size = end_size;
}

Now that we know how to get candidate widths for the children, we can complete the function to measure in the opposite direction. As before, we eventually return the maximum of the required heights for our children, since our layout is horizontal.

Note that orientation is GTK_ORIENTATION_VERTICAL in this case, so the min and nat values returned by the gtk_widget_measure() calls are heights.

distribute (self, -1, width, sizes);

gtk_widget_measure (start_widget,
                    orientation,
                    sizes[0].minimum_size,
                    &start_min, &start_nat,
                    &min_baseline, &nat_baseline);

gtk_widget_measure (center_widget,
                    orientation,
                    sizes[1].minimum_size,
                    &center_min, &center_nat,
                    &min_baseline, &nat_baseline);

gtk_widget_measure (end_widget,
                    orientation,
                    sizes[2].minimum_size,
                    &end_min, &end_nat,
                    &min_baseline, &nat_baseline);

*minimum = MAX (start_min, center_min, end_min);
*natural = MAX (start_nat, center_nat, end_nat);

Since we have now broken out the bulk of size_allocate() into the distribute() function, we can just call it from there and then do the remaining work that is necessary to assign positions to the children (since distribute already gave us the sizes).

Expanded
Slightly below natural size
Smaller
and smaller
and smaller

References

  1. Container secrets: size allocation
  2. Container secrets: size allocation, part 2
  3. Container secrets: size allocation, part 3
  4. The code with these changes
  5. Documentation of height-for-width geometry management